SPICE for Business Transformation

Imagine an organization where people, business processes, products, services and technologies are in sync. Where an organization performs at its most optimal levels and miraculously everyone is happy and contributing for the wellbeing of the organization. No, I am not talking about a fictional scenario in a far off land. I am talking about an organization harnessing all the power of its capabilities to achieve Business Transformation. And I believe that there is a lot organizations can achieve if they view Business Transformation as a holistic and all-encompassing endeavor. So, today I am going to talk to you about how SPICE can make your organizations better.

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I help organizations pursue a better version of themselves. In this pursuit, I collaborate with front-line employees, middle management and the C-suite to understand issues beyond the obvious so that individuals and organizations can achieve their objectives. Over the years, I have held many titles but the underlying theme is to always do and look for Business Transformation opportunities.

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Business is “the activity of making, buying, or selling goods or providing services in exchange for money” for corporations. For non-profits, business is the pursuit of social causes. For educational institutes, business is the pursuit of knowledge. For governments, business is the pursuit of citizen services and for military business is national security.

Transformation is “a process”.

Now, that you have a baseline understanding of what Business Transformation is and how it helps, the next time when you hear this term you would be aware that it is not just another buzzword and not just another business initiative that would disappear with time.

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Now, imagine a person named John who is walking through an unknown and dark tunnel with just a flashlight in his hands and he is carrying some baggage behind him. John does not know what is in the baggage. He continues to use the flashlight to look ahead to find his way out. His resources are limited. Thus, his objective is to reach the correct end of this unknown and dark tunnel as efficiently as possible.

Would John make it?

According to some experts, if this person were an organization pursuing Business Transformation then he would have failed 70% of the time. Think about this for a second, this means that only 30% of Business Transformation endeavors are able to achieve their full potential. Why is this?

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While there could be a variety of reasons for this high failure rate, I have observed that the number one reason for this is related to a typical conversation within organizations.

How many times have you said or heard someone say, “the business” wants this and “the business” wants that and that “the business” doesn’t understand that systems cannot be developed overnight. Ingrained in this sort of thinking is the idea that somehow IT is different from “the business”.

Somehow there is this “Us” vs. “Them” mentality.

If we think about it, all organizations take advantage of technological advancements. Paper, which was once considered a technology itself, is now used in every organization today in one way or another. Today, all organizations are digital in one way or another even if they don’t realize it yet and to think that they are not stems from this “Us” vs. “Them” mentality.

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Perhaps it is time to change the conversation! Perhaps it is time to think about IT as not something that is outside of “the business” but it is part of “the business”. To have this conversation, there has to be mutual understanding that neither “side” should downplay the importance of the other. This requires an understanding that all technical and non-technical aspects of the organization are there to support the end objectives of business transformation and that collaboration works much better than just mere animosity.

When I started assessing and improving organizations in 2003, I didn’t know what it was called. All I wanted to do was help organizations apply the full potential of their capabilities beyond what they perceived them to be which included but not limited to IT capabilities. Over the years, this took on new meaning for me as the conversation quickly changed from just doing my duties to fundamentally reshaping organizations inside out.

A couple of years ago Business Transformation, IT Transformation and Digital Transformation started to pick up steam and it took off. A lot more individuals and organizations started to pay attention when they saw their bread and butter business models being shattered in light of the new economy. Startups like Uber took on the Taxi Services around the world and now are expanding into other means of transportation as well. In response, Taxi Service companies pushed back hard by either through legislation and government policy or creating their own taxi mobile apps. If the taxi service companies think that they can compete with Uber with just their own taxicab apps then they are hugely mistaken. This is just one example that illustrates how one industry became complacent and within a short period of time a competitor emerged with a new business model that directly tied its operations to technology and the rest, as we know it, is history.

So, if you think about it, Business Transformation is not a standalone activity but a holistic one. Thus, if the people, business processes, products, services and technologies are ignored or not paid enough attention then Business Transformation becomes just another pipe dream.

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As I see it, organizations that are committed to figuring out the Business Transformation journey have to ask 5 fundamental questions from an internal perspective and an external perspective. These questions are:

  1. Who is helped by Business Transformation efforts? Is it management? Is it employees? Or maybe its customers and shareholders? Perhaps answering this entails understanding customer experiences issues and long-term value propositions to shareholders.
  2. What does Business Transformation teach us? Is it better internal communications? Is it Governance and Standardization? Or is it Branding? An organization that showcases and does actual Business Transformation has better stories to tell about improvements and thus can attract customers who see value in an organization that is trying to do better.
  3. Where does Business Transformation start? Does it start in IT? Does it start in Marketing or Operations? Or does it start with customers, vendors and partners? When a customer comes to you and requests a system to be developed, do you ignore this request since your organization does not develop these types of systems or do you explore this further and figure out how you or a partner could help your customer?
  4. When should Business Transformation be considered? How about when an employee has a conversation with a customer? How about when established competitors are eating your lunch? Or should it be considered when new innovations and methods arise?
  5. Most importantly, why do Business Transformation in the first place? Is the organization looking to become optimized and have better cohesiveness? Or is it better long-term value and creating positive societal ripples such as the creation of Corporate Social Responsibility groups that look into Green Technologies to save electricity and in turn save the plant as a consequence.

These are all important questions to ask before, during and after the Business Transformation journeys. But if there are no effective feedback loops then most Business Transformation journeys would be just a one-time initiative and not something that makes organizations become self-improvement entities.

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By this time, most of you might be thinking “well ok I get it that Business Transformation is more than what meets the eye but so what?!!”

What does Business Transformation really have to do with Business Architecture?

A valid question. I want you to think about this…

Do you see Business Architecture as just a plan, as just a design or a model, maybe perhaps a guide, or a way to create documentation, or for the purposes of alignment? Or do you see Business Architecture as a way to accomplish a vision and even to improve an organization’s mentality.

The fundamental reason we do Business Architecture in the first place is to fully leverage the technical and non-technical capabilities of the organization to transform itself. You don’t create a plan or a model or a guide to just document it but you do create it so that these insights can be used to make the organization better otherwise why do it in the first place anyways!

Thus, Business Architecture and Business Transformation are highly intertwined. An effective Business Architecture would open up avenues for Business Transformation so that when it comes to responding to market demands, strategy does not get lost in translation when it comes time for execution.

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I have spent many years recognizing patterns in my own engagements, academic literature and case studies and have determined that there are fundamentally 5 factors that affect the journeys towards Business Transformation.

These 5 factors are Strategies, Politics, Innovation, Culture and Execution or simply called the SPICE Factors.

I represent these factors in a pentagon shape. On its edges are the 5 factors which start from Strategies on the left hand corner and going clockwise until Execution. In the middle of the pentagon shape, there is a loop in yellow indicating that Business Transformation is a continuous process and not just a single project or initiative. Besides each SPICE factors there is a performance indicator to represent that each of the factors have to be measured. This measurement can entail Key Performance Indicators and even Service Level Agreement checks.

The red pentagon indicates where the organization is today (aka the current state) while the green pentagon indicates where the organization wants to be tomorrow (aka the future state). In the middle, the yellow arrow from the red pentagon to the green pentagon indicates transition and indicates what the areas that need to be taken into consideration namely people, business processes and technologies. By extension, these areas influence the products and services provided by the organization.

I am going to go through each of these 5 factors and make you think about how each of these factors can affect Business Transformation within your organizations.

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The first SPICE factor is Strategies. Strategy is a careful plan or method for achieving a particular goal usually over a long period of time. Depending upon how far out your organization can think, a long period of time can be 1 year, 3 years or even 10 years. Of course as you go further out in time, your strategy gets complex as you might not be able to anticipate what is going to happen.

There are many levels of strategies within the organization such as Financial Strategy, Marketing Strategy, Operations Strategy and IT Strategy to name a few. Additionally, strategies can be top down, bottom up, cross-functional and hybrids. But fundamentally, I put strategies in three big buckets namely Organizational Strategy which affects Executives (e.g., performance compensation, M&A etc.), Team Strategy which affects Middle Management (e.g., Operational Improvement, Tool Selection etc.) & Individual Strategy which affects front-line employees (e.g., career trajectory, hiring etc.).

In addition to these strategies and the types of people that they affect, it gets more complex and the real relationships actually look more complicated. Upon further depth, we realize that all of these types of strategies have an internal perspective and an external perspective.

For example, from an internal perspective, organizational strategy looks at things like the type of organizational structures such as functional, matrixed, product-based or hybrids. Depending upon what structure your organization has or wants to evolve into, there would be repercussions. In a functional organizational structure, focus on areas of expertise is increased but what is lost is the cross collaboration which leads to silos. On the other hand, in a matrixed project-based structure, the individuals are only needed for the duration of that project and then they go back into a pool to be picked up or not. What incentive do people have in this type of structure to get the job done efficiently? Something to think about.

Depending upon what the end goal is, these strategies can

  1. Affect performance compensation for executives
  2. Create or destroy middle management fiefdoms
  3. Affect Hiring, Training and Layoff of frontline employees
  4. Create and destroy bloated expectations

The last point is interesting since a strategy with bloated expectations or no expectations at all can lead to misalignment namely between IT Strategy and other Organizational Strategies. Lets think about this…

  1. Was this misalignment always there or somehow it evolved over time?
  2. Why did this misalignment happen in the first place?

A root cause understanding from technical and non-technical views can reveal something that might have been taken for granted. For example, IT teams creating and acquiring tools that have no relationship to the Organizational Strategy or perhaps revealing the purchase of technology by non-IT teams which again has no relationship to the Organizational Strategy.

In short, there are 3 key points to consider for Business Transformation in terms of strategies:

  1. The real an unreal organizational structures matter more that you might like to believe
  2. Plan to plan and measure performance both at an organizational level as well as at individual levels
  3. Alignment is a two-way conversation that is not a top-down demand but should be a collaborative approach

Having said that, as corporate citizens of the organization, we have to realize that Strategies are not shelf-ware.

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Merriam Webster defines politics to be the complex of relations between people living in a society. For our purposes, here society would refer to your organization. No one wants to talk about politics in the organization and yet there are decisions made everyday that are political in nature. 

Politics in organizations is about power; the power to frame a problem; the power to influence decision and the power to make decisions. While we are all aware of the official power that is the power of your superior within the organization but most have also encountered unofficial power where regardless of the title an individual is able to persuade others. Some people call this leadership while other call it manipulation.

In organizations, while it may seem that all similar titles should hold the same power but that is certainly not the case. Even with VP titles, not all VPs are the same. Some have more power based on the number of people they manage, based on the revenue generated by their teams and even based on the relationships they have with others within the organization. So, the next time you look at an org chart and see all VPs at the same level you will know that an organizational chart is just a fairytale representation and not reality. Why this matters? This matter because the next time you are looking for champions to support your projects keep a vigilant eye on who has power and how much of their power is used to make decisions.

The display of power is more relevant today in the age of big data than ever before. As you know, most Big Data initiatives revolve around gathering massive amounts of data and then finding patterns. The thought behind is that once we can figure out patterns then we can make better decisions. This however is not the complete picture. Beyond the usual Vs of Big Data, I believe there are 4 Vs that are critical but missing in most conversations.

These Vs are Vitality meaning how important the data is, Versatility meaning how data could be applied to various scenarios, Vocality meaning the supporters of data-driven approaches and lastly Veto meaning the ultimate authority to accept or reject big data conclusions. As you might have noticed, Vocality and Veto are about Power.

The idea of power also applies when you are creating an ERP System. The executives who have official and unofficial powers can become champions or become obstacles. One way to remedy this is to get them involved early on; have a discussion, find out pain points and get feedback. So, when it is time to standup an ERP system, the people have been engaged from the begining and it is not a surprise. Also be prepared that business process optmization should be done first prior to any large scale systems because otherwise all you are doing is automating broken business processes and thus when it is time to optmize them it would become much harder to do so. Other examples of displaying of power would be in Cloud Computing and Shadow IT.

In short, there are 2 key points to consider for Business Transformation in terms of politics:

  1. The official and unofficial power considerations matter and can make or break a project
  2. Create a Power Map to know where a power resides, assign quantitative values to them to set a baseline and then verify with projects that those baselines are correct

Remember, politics needs to be understood especially in the case of organizations.

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Innovation is defined to be the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices or methods. Innovation can be a new product, a new way of hiring people, a new way of doing business processes, a new service and it can also be a new technology. If there are so many ways of being innovative, why organizations and individuals struggle in this area?

For most, innovation is something that is considered difficult since people don’t know where to start or how to continue. Innovation comes from inspiration and I believe that organizations and individuals can be inspired by things around them. The left picture represents the possible sources of organizational inspiration for innovation. These sources include:

  1. First, the organization’s internal customers. By internal customer, yes I do mean anyone who is within the boundaries of your organizations and yes that includes your employees. Employees who can see beyond the immediate needs and are able to connect the dots should have an avenue to express it. Thus, there should be some sort of innovation process that captures the wisdom of these employees.
  2. Second, the organization’s external customers. We are all aware of the external customers who are outside the boundaries of your organization but they too can provide feedback to improve your products and services.
  3. Third, within your own industry, which includes looking at what competitors, partners and/or startups are doing something that could be applied internally.
  4. Fourth, outside your industry. Think about the field of Project Management that emerged from the construction industry but now it is used in Software Development.
  5. Lastly, the integration, customization and combination of inspirations from the above four ways. Think about the evolution of writing from cave walls to stone tablets to paper and then eventually to computers.

The picture on the right represents the possible sources of individual inspiration for innovation. These sources include:

  1. First, your direct circle of influences namely your friends and family. Have you considered talking with them about problems that you might be facing and what they would recommend?
  2. Second, your indirect circle on influence namely your co-workers, educational and professional associations. Perhaps what you are having trouble with they have already solved or at least they can give you a nudge in the right direction.
  3. Third, increasing your understanding of areas that interest you which includes reading books, blogs, news articles and talking to people who have experience in that area.
  4. Fourth, increasing your awareness of areas that you are not that knowledgeable in which includes different types of readings, experiencing cultures beyond your own, conversation with diverse people, observing the plant kingdom and observing the animal kingdom.
  5. Lastly, the stitching, applicability and combination of inspiration from the above four ways. Think about the invention of Velcro by observing cockleburs in the plant kingdom.

Thus, it would be naïve for organizations to think that they cannot fully take advantage of innovation at the organizational and individual levels.

They have to remember that innovation is the lifeline.

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Culture is a way of thinking, behaving, or working that exists in a place or organization. Often times when there is a discussion of culture within organizations we immediately think this is something fuzzy and it is only equated with people. While people definitely create a culture but there is more to this than meets the eye.

You see culture is not just one thing but a combination of things. Most organizations don’t have one culture but they have a mix of sub-cultures. The way people are treated creates a sub-culture. For example, how are people within the organizations at all levels incentivized and rewarded? The way people dress creates a sub-culture. For example, if executives dress differently vs. non-executives this visibly creates the culture of in-crowd vs. outsiders. The posters in public locations, the discussion between Mac. Vs. Windows, IT behind closed doors and even an individual can create sub-cultures within an organizations.

All of this matters because culture is not just having a foosball table or other “perk”, it is creating an environment where employees are appreciated not just by talk by the executive but by tangible actions through incentives, rewards and performance goals.

Culture is at the base of the SPICE factors for a reason.

Culture can make a strategy just another paper-exercise, culture can drastically affect politics, culture can resist organizational innovation, and culture can prevent effective execution of operations and all of this means that culture can diminish any hopes for Business Transformation.

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Execution is the act of doing or performing something. If you notice in the above-mentioned factors, all of them need to be executed; measured and performed otherwise all we are doing is just wasting our breath and paper. As I see it, execution also has an organizational level and an individual level. Both of them are highly intertwined. If there are no structures and processes to determine and quantify execution issues then how would you know where your baseline is and if you don’t know where your baseline is then how would you know if your Business Transformation efforts have been successful or not.

Note that execution is highly based on biases and perceptions of organizations and individuals as discussed earlier. They have to be considered and if needed be persuaded to be changed.

Rewards and incentives can not only change behavior but it can enhance cohesion and collaboration across the organization.

Lesson learned are useless when all they are is a paper exercise of capturing what happened wrong or right but not an input for other projects so that they can avoid similar mistakes or repeat successes.

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All the factors that have been discussed are not something that are done in isolation but they all come together to create an organization that is able to transform it self based and stay ahead of the game.

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As we can see from the live survey, the most important area for Business Transformation is People and the most important factor for Business Transformation is execution.

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Now, let’s go back to our dear friend John (aka your organization). With his understanding of the SPICE Factors and his awareness of how the SPICE Factors can affect people, business processes, products, services and technologies, don’t you think he would have used his flash light to find out what was in the baggage. Perhaps some of the baggage was dead weight that he needed to get rid of and perhaps in the baggage there were additional resources he could use such as food, liquids and even a map. But the only way John would find out would be to look behind and just check his baggage!

All I am saying is…help John find his way and help him succeed!

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Standing Up an Enterprise Architecture Center of Excellence and a Certification Program at Your University

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This article proposes the establishment of a Center for Operations, Research and Education (CORE) at your university. CORE would be a team of people that proactively and holistically help achieve university’s business outcomes. Its mission would be to provide comprehensive educational programs in Enterprise Architecture, conduct research and use this research to help transform the university.

For this article, the strategic direction and cultural factors in relationship to operations, research and education in Enterprise Architecture are considered. We assume status quo in regards to your university’s culture for this assessment, specifically the perception of Information Technology. The following table shows what we considered:

  Operations Research Education
Current State (Observations)
  • No one is responsible for Enterprise Architecture
  • No research is being conducted in this field
  • No comprehensive program in Enterprise Architecture
Future State (Recommendations)
  • CORE would be independent of your university’s President
  • Rotating leadership where every school, department and division has the opportunity to lead CORE
  • Conduct research by partnering with other elite institutions
  • Begin by providing a graduate certification program
  • Aim for providing Bachelor’s, Master’s and executive programs in the future

This assessment reveals that currently where Enterprise Architecture is placed in the organization, it will not be able to provide the organizational transformational value that is aspires to provide. Additionally, your university should start providing comprehensive programs in this field otherwise they would be left behind other educational institutions that are already moving in this direction.

1. ANALYSIS

This section provides an analysis of standing up CORE from an operational, research and educational prospective.

Assumptions

  1. Your university’s executive management would support this effort
  2. All university communities would help transform it to achieve operational excellence
  3. Perception of IT would not change instantly

1.1 What is Center of Excellence?

According to Tarek M. Khalil et al. (2001), within an organization, a Center of Excellence may refer to a group of people, a department or a shared facility. It may also be known as a Competency Center or a Capability Center. The term may also refer to a network of institutions collaborating with each other to pursue excellence in a particular area.

1.2 What is Enterprise Architecture?

Due to the evolving nature of this field, there are many academic and practitioner definitions of what is Enterprise Architecture. For our purposes we will use the one definition from the glossary on Gartner’s website that states Enterprise Architecture as a discipline for proactively and holistically leading enterprise responses to disrupt forces by identifying and analyzing the execution of change toward desired business vision and outcomes. Enterprise Architecture delivers value by presenting business and Information Technology (IT) leaders with signature-ready recommendations for adjusting policies and projects to achieve target business outcomes that capitalize on relevant business disruptions. Enterprise Architecture is used to steer decision-making toward the evolution of the future state architecture.

In a nutshell, “Enterprise Architecture bridges the Business and Information Technology via enterprise integration/standardization resulting in people becoming more efficient and effective in achieving their objectives.” Kevin Smith (2010)

It should be noted that Enterprise Architecture is not an Information Technology endeavor but in fact it sits in between Business and IT and works across organizational silos.

1.3 What is CORE?

If we combine the two definitions above then a definition for center of excellence in enterprise architecture emerges which is a team of people that proactively and holistically helps achieve business outcomes. For your university and breadth of this center’s agenda, it would be called Center for Operations, Research and Education (CORE).

1.4 What is the Operational Perspectives?

1.4.1 Why should Your University Pay Attention to Enterprise Architecture?

One of the biggest proponents and users of Enterprise Architecture is the most powerful office in the world – The White House. The United States Federal Government has been using Enterprise Architecture for more than a decade and continues to see it as a way to look across organizational silos.

What this means for your university is that, huge organizations are trying to improve their operations and they are turning towards Enterprise Architecture to help them do that. Your university can tap into this, apply Enterprise Architecture effectively and perhaps get involved in Enterprise Architecture discussions for organizational improvements. This involvement could also translate into future research grants and job opportunities for students.

1.4.2 Why putting Enterprise Architecture under Information Technology is Not a Good Idea?

All organizations are a composition of many cultures and subcultures. Some of these cultures develop over time and then become part of the routine mentality of an organization. Your university is not immune from this. In order to understand the perception of Information Technology at your university, look at how the university’s strategic plans were developed. Was Information Technology involved/invited to help in the development of your university’s strategic plan?

If not, then this is a cultural issue and often the cause of misalignments within organizations. Whenever Information Technology is not involved in strategic planning, it gives the perception that Information Technology is not important, it is just a commodity and it is just back office activities. This lack of involvement is the reason that according to the 2013 Chief Information Officer ‘State of the CIO’ survey, “63% [of the respondents] say the majority of their time and focus is spent on aligning Information Technology initiatives with business goals.” This shows there are gaps in aligning Business and Information Technology. This alignment can be achieved through Enterprise Architecture. According to a Gartner study (G00146809), Business-Information Technology alignment is the primary driver for Enterprise Architecture as shown below:

Primary Driver for Enterprise Architecture

Taking into consideration the current culture at your university, placing Enterprise Architecture under Information Technology would not make sense. If Enterprise Architecture continues to be placed under Information Technology then at your university Enterprise Architecture would be perceived as an “Information Technology thing”. This perception would defeat the overarching purpose of Enterprise Architecture. Enterprise Architecture needs to have a holistic understanding of your university going beyond Information Technology. A Gartner study (G00245986) supports this thought of Enterprise Architecture going beyond Information Technology as shown below:

Enterprise Architecture beyond IT

From the above figure, we can learn that while technology is a consideration in Enterprise Architecture but it is certainly not the only aspect that needs to be considered. A well-run CORE at your university would consistently produce qualitative and quantitative for both Business and IT. Some of examples of these are:

  • Qualitative Benefits
    • Improved Communications Across Organizational Silos
    • Increased Productivity
    • Efficient Portfolio Management
    • Effective Business Intelligence
  • Quantitative Benefits
    • Reduced Costs
    • Revenue Generation

1.4.3 What are the Maturity Levels for Enterprise Architecture?

According to a Gartner study (G00252206), it outlines the five levels of Enterprise Architecture maturity shown below:

Enterprise Architecture Levels of Maturity.png

What this means is that a lot of work needs to be done in this area and your entire university has to be involved in it so that it can be used effectively across organizational boundaries.

1.4.4 How will CORE Measure its Success?

From an operational prospective, a Gartner study (G00247593) indicates the following ways to align Enterprise Architecture to strategic business initiatives:

Align Enterprise Architecture to Strategic Business Objectives

At your university, success of Enterprise Architecture would depend upon how it can help your university transform itself to achieve its strategic visions.

1.5 What are the Educational and Research Perspectives?

1.5.1 Is Enterprise Architecture Taught at Your University?

Are Enterprise Architecture courses taught at your university in various schools (e.g., business school, engineering school, professional studies school etc.)? If yes, do you know if these schools at your university are talking to each other about Enterprise Architecture? If not, then there is no comprehensive Enterprise Architecture program at your university. From this observation, we can decipher that although Enterprise Architecture might be part of certain programs but overall it is fragmented at your university.

1.5.2 Why Should Your University Teach or Do Research in Enterprise Architecture?

In order to be an elite institution, your university needs to look at what other elite institutions are doing, assess what programs they offer and what kinds of research they are pursuing. Your university should then look at how these programs can be stood up.

For the purpose of this article, we will only focus on the institutions that teach, conduct research and/or have comprehensive programs in Enterprise Architecture. These include:

  Institutions Name Country
1 Harvard University USA
2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
3 Dartmouth College USA
4 Carnegie Mellon USA
5 Pennsylvania State University USA

2. Recommendations

Due to the importance of Enterprise Architecture as a catalyst in organizational transformation, in the current culture at your university, CORE should not be under IT. CORE’s mission is to help your university continuously evolve, conduct/use research and provide comprehensive educational programs. It should be an interdisciplinary entity whose members include all schools, divisions and departments of your university. Thus, it should be placed where it has the most influence as shown below:

CORE at your university.png

CORE should start as a chartered center initially led by School of Business and in collaboration with Engineering School, Professional Studies School and IT. Within the first year this would develop relationships across all the university.

CORE’s leadership should be on a rotating basis where each school, department and division of your university has the opportunity to lead CORE for at least 1 year. This will create an atmosphere of collaboration and help break down organizational silos. This governance structure would also encourage participants to be actively involved in CORE’s advancement and they can use it to also enhance their own schools, divisions and departments.

In regards to education and research, CORE should develop a graduate certificate program with the goal of creating Bachelor’s, Master’s and executive programs in the future.

References:

  1. Tarek M. Khalil; L.A. Lefebvre; Robert McSpadden Mason (2001). Management of Technology: The Key to Prosperity in the Third millennium: Selected Papers from Ninth International Conference on Management of Technology, Emerald Group Publishing, pp.164
  2. IT Glossary, Enterprise Architecture, http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/enterprise-architecture-ea/
  3. Kevin Smith (2010), Pragmatic EA: The 160 Character Challenge, Version 1.3, pp.12
  4. White House (2012), http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/egov_docs/common_approach_to_federal_ea.pdf
  5. CIO Magazine (2013), ‘State of the CIO’ Survey, pp.4
  6. Robert A. Handler (2007). Key Issues for Enterprise Architecture. Retrieved from Gartner database.
  7. Julie Short (2013). Agenda Overview for Enterprise Architecture. Retrieved from Gartner database.
  8. Chris Wilson (2013). ITScore Overview for Enterprise Architecture. Retrieved from Gartner database.
  9. Betsy Burton (2013). EA Business Value Metrics You Must Have Today . Retrieved from Gartner database.
  10. Harvard University, IT for Management, http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/it-for-management-toc
  11. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Information Systems Research, http://cisr.mit.edu/research/research-overview/classic-topics/enterprise-architecture/
  12. Dartmouth College, Auburn Cyber Research Center, http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/events/abstract-hamilton.html
  13. Carnegie Mellon, Institute for Software Research, http://execed.isri.cmu.edu/elearning/enterprise-architecture/index.html
  14. Pennsylvania State University, Center for Enterprise Architecture, http://ea.ist.psu.edu